Friday, April 11, 2014


I am not shan but hugawng kachin and shan people are kinship,clan,related ,,
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By Dr.Sai Htwe~~ ကၽြန္ပ္သိေသာရွမ္းသမုိင္း ~~
SHAN is the Burman appellation for those races who call themselves Tai (wB;).
They are probably the most numerous and widely diffused Indo-Chinese race and occupy the valleys and plateau of the broad belt of mountainous country that leaves the Himalayas and trends Southeasterly between Burma proper on the west and China, Assam and Cambodia on the east, to the Gulf of Siam.
The Origin of Shan
Tai are people of mainland Southeast Asia, including:
The Thai or Siamese (in central and southern Thailand),
The Lao (in Laos and northern Thailand),
The Shan (in northeast Myanmar @ Burma),
The Dai (in Yunnan province, China, Myanmar, Laos, northern Thailand and Vietnam) and
The Tai (in northern Vietnam).
Some historians claim that Tai people are, in BC 3000, the inhabitants of Asia, central part of the land now known as China. Rev. William C. Dodd, a Christian missionary, stated that the Tai settled in the land now known as China before Chinese arrived, based on Chinese annals of 2200 BC. The history of contact between the Tai and Han (Chinese) peoples dated back to 109 BC, when Emperor Wu Di of the Han Dynasty set up Yizhou Prefecture in southwestern Yi (the name used to signify the minority areas of what are now Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces). The Tai, in subsequent years, sent tribute to the Han court in Luoyang, among the emissaries were musicians and acrobats. The Han court gave gold seals to the Tai ambassadors and their chieftain the title “Great Captain.” According to Chinese documents of the ninth century, the Tai had a fairly well developed agriculture. They used oxen and elephants to till the land, grew large quantities of rice and had built an extensive irrigation system. They used kapok for weaving, panned salt and made weapons of metal. They plated their teeth with gold and silver.
According to Chinese annals, the “Ta Muong” (Great Muong) lived in the northwestern part of Szechwan province, in western central China, even before Chinese migrated from the west. Ta Muong would have been the ancestors of the “Ai Lao” or “Tai” race known as Pa, Pa Lao or PaYi in China who later founded the powerful “Nan Chao Kingdom” in Yunnan province. In BC 1558 the Tai had spread over a vast territory almost across the whole width of modern China. Tai have never been called Chinese, nor claimed to have any ethnic links with the Chinese race. Throughout Chinese historical records the Chinese name for the Tai has constantly been changed. According to American Missionary Rev. William W. Cochrane, Tai means Free. Sometimes it is also written as Dai when refer to Tai in China. The Dai ethnic group in China, with a population of about 1.2 million, mainly lives in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Region and Xishuangbanna (SipSongPanNa), which mean twelve productive rice fields, Autonomous Prefecture, in the southern part of Yunnan province. The main Dai groups in China are Dai Lu, Dai Nua and Dai Mao. According to Travel China Guide, Dai is the name of the nationality, which means “freedom”. Tai or Shan is now used as a generic word to cover the whole race spelled by French as Thay. The name is said to mean “The Free” or “Free Men.” Why do they call themselves “Tai” or “Free” or “Freedom” or “Freemen”? Most likely, according to the history of Tai people, they were under attack many times by many groups such as Monkhmer, Mongol and Chinese for centuries. Their Kingdoms had been destroyed Kingdom by Kingdom. They were dispersed to many places in Southeast Asia because of war. They ended up “people without country” in other countries such as China, Burma, India and Vietnam and became a minority group of people in those countries. They would long for freedom. The great Tai race, who number today about 100 million, had established numerous Kingdoms and States in the past and still govern the two nations of Thailand and Laos. Tai people consider Thailand and Laos as Tai countries existing today.
Why Tai are also called Shan? One of the suppositions concerning the origin of the name “Shan” (oSsef;) is that, it derived from the word “Siam” (Hsian, Sein), which designates to a group of mountainous people who migrated from Yunnan in the 6th century AD. Siam means agriculture or cultivating. Most probably because they were people of farming. Another supposition is, when Kublai Khan and his Mongol army conquered Nan Chao Kingdom in AD 1253 a second wave of Tai migrating down south into many areas of Southeast Asia. Some migrating Tai became mercenaries for the Khmer armies in the early 13th century AD as it was depicted in the walls of Angkor Wat. In those days the Khmer called Tai as Syam, the word derived from Sunskrit meaning golden or yellow. The Tai at that time had a yellow or golden skin color. Shan can be a corrupt word of Syam, a name given to Kshatriya (warriors) (those warriors were said to be Shan) who were on duty for the Khmer Empire. A third supposition suggests that Shan were the people named after the “Great Mountain Ranges of China” from where they had migrated. Shan in Chinese is “mountain” or “hill”.
Tai in Burma are called Shan. But Shan always call themselves Tai (wB;) . Shan population in Burma is about 5 million (10% of Burma total population)
The Ancient Kingdoms
Shan had their country and ruled by King since BC 2000 up to 16th Century AD when the last Shan kingdom was overthrown by Burman King Anawrata. There were nine Shan kingdoms recorded in early history.
1. Tsu Kingdom (rldif;old0f) (BC 2000 - BC 222)
2. Ai Lao Kingdom (rldif;nBmjvm0f;) (AD 47 - AD 225)
3. Nan Chao Kingdom (rldif;vmefhq0fj) (AD 649 - AD 1252)
4. Muong Mao Lone Kingdom (rldif;rm0f;vlif) (AD 764 - AD 1252)
5. Yonok Kingdom (rldif;vmefheM;) (AD 773 - AD 1080)
6. SipSongPanNa (rldif;odyf;o.ifyef;eM;) (AD 1180 - AD 1292)
7. Waisali Kingdom (rldif;wlefjo.ef;crf;) (AD 1227 - AD 1838)
8. Sukhothai (rldif;xB;) (AD 1238 - AD 1350)
9. Muong Mao Kingdom (rldif;rm0f;) (AD 1311 - AD 1604)
Muong Mao Kingdom was the last kingdom of Shan.
The Kings of MuongMao were:
Hsu Kan Hpa (old0fcmefbZMU) (AD 1311 - AD 1364) (founder of Muong Mao)
Hsu Pem Hpa (old0fyArfbZMU) (q0fjyArfbZMU) (AD 1364 - AD 1366)
Hsu Wak Hpa (old0f0mufjZMU) (ckefwB;yArfb) (AD 1366 - AD 1367)
Hsu Hzun Hpa (old0fqkdefjZMU) (ildefjcA0fZMU) (AD 1367 - AD 1368)
Hsu Hom Hpa (old0f+rfbZMU) (ckefyl;auM;) (AD 1367 - AD 1371)
Hsu Yap Hpa (old0f,AyfbZMU) (wm0fhcmifbrldif;) (AD 1371)
Hsu Hum Hpa (old0f=rfbZMU) (AD 1372 - AD 1405)
Hsu Ke Hpa (old0fcDbZMU) (AD 1405 - AD 1420)
Their Migration
The first migration of Shan was said to be taken place in 1st century BC when wars in central China drove many Tai people from that area. Those people moved South founded ancient Shan cities such as “MuongMao” (rldif;rm0f;) “MuongNai” (rldif;eBm;) “HsenWi” (oFefj0D) and “HsiPaw” (oDDbayMU). All of them are in Burma today. The second migration took place in 6th century AD from the mountain of Yunnan. They followed “Nam Mao River” (erfhrm0f;) (ShweLi River) to the South and settled in the valleys and regions surrounding the river. Some continued west into Thailand. A second branch went north following the Brahmaputra River into Northern Assam, India. These three groups of Tai migrants were; Tai Ahom (Assam), Siam (Thailand) and Shan (Shan State), came to regard themselves as
“Free People.”
Their Present Settlement
Shan live in Burma, China, India, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam under different names but always one and the same people in different countries. Tai people in Burma are called Shan. There are five million Shan in Burma. Their land is called Shan State. Shan people in Burma are also known as Tai Lone, Tai Lai, Dai Nua, Dai Mao, Tai Dome, Tai Ding, Tai Sa, Tai La, Tai Wan, Tai Hume, Tai Lamm, Tai Kwan, Dai Lu, Tai Sam Tao, Tai An, Tai Khun, Tai Ngam, Tai Hai Ya, Tai Yang, Tai Loi, Tai Leng, Tai Khamti.
In China about ten million Shan live in Yunnan, Hainan and Canton. They are known as Dai. There are three main Tai groups in China such as Dai Nua, Dai Mao and Dai Lu. Other Tai groups in China are known as Dai Yangze, Dai Nam (Sue Dai) or Dai Nung, Dai Lai, Dai Lone, Dai Chaung, Dai Doi, Dai Lung, Dai Kai Hua Jen, Tuo Law or Pa Yi, Pu Tai, Pu Naung, Pu Man, Pu Yu, Pu Chia, Pu En, Pu Yai, Pu Sui, Dai Ching, Dai Pa, Dai Tu Jen, Dai Doi, Dai Tho, Dai Hakkas, Dai Ong Be, Dai Li or Dai Lo.
In India Tai live in Assam State. They are known as Tai Ahom or Tai Assam or Tai Khamti.
In Lao they are known as Lao-Tai, include local groups such as Black Tai (Tai Dam) (Dai Lum) and Red Tai (Tai Deng) (Tai Leng) and Tai Nua.
In Thailand they are known as Tai Yai, literally means Great Tai.
In Vietnam they are known as Black Tai (wB;vrf@) and White Tai (Tai Khao) (wB;cm0f) numbering about five hundred thousand. Some other Tai in Vietnam are; Tai Tho (wB;xl0fb), Tai Nung (wB;ekif;), Tai To Tis (wB;xl0fbwdwfh), Tai Yang or Tai Nhang (wB;,mif;? WB;emif;), Tai Leng (wB;vFif@), Tai Pong Toa (wB;z.if;xl0fh), Dai Lu (wB;vkd0fh).
According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the estimate total number of Tai in the late 20th century is about 75,760,000 (including 45,060,000 Thai in Thailand, 3,020,000 Laotians in Laos, 3,710,000 Shan in Burma, 21,180,000 Dai in China, and about 2,790,000 Tai in Vietnam.) (Tai in India, Assam State, are not included in this statistic)