Wednesday, January 10, 2018


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Kachin State Day



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1953 ning Jingphaw Mung Nhtoi htaq Jinghpaw Mung Ningbaw Sama Duwa Sinwa Naw tsun ai Mung Masa mungga hpe hti yu ga

By Palawng Naw tawng Facebook

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Monday, January 8, 2018

“Memorandum expressing the wishes of the Kachin People, submitted to the Enquiry Committee by the Group of Kachin Representatives sent from Kachin Hill Areas.”

Gum San NSang
Kaning re Federal anhte Wunpawng sha ni ra a ta?
Panglong ga sadi, Feb 12, 1947 ngut ai hpang British Hkawhkam hte Mungkan a man hta tara shang ka da ai:
***Jiwoi ni Shingran ai Jinghpaw Mung hte Federal gaw***
“Memorandum expressing the wishes of the Kachin People, submitted to the Enquiry Committee by the Group of Kachin Representatives sent from Kachin Hill Areas.” 
hta Kachin Ningbaw ningla 50 ta masat htu da ai laika hta hti mu lu na re:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Buga shagu na Kachin Dat Kasa Salang ni Amyu sha ting a gawng malai Kachin ni ra sharawng ai lam hpe “Frontier Areas Committee of Enquiry” de ap ya ai Ndau laika
Maymyo: April 15th, 1947 
Anhte hte Myen hte ginra masa rau ni nawn tim, ya na aten du hkra gaw prat madang, htung hkring, makam masham, hte hkam la ai lam grai naw tsan nga majaw kalang ta Mung langai kaw sha n-ginhka nna nga na gaw nmai byin shi ai. Anhte Kachin ni gaw Kachin State (Jinghpaw Mung) hpe grai ra sharawng ga ai. Ndai Kachin State hta Myitkyina, Manmaw, hta n-ga layang ga Kahta lahta du hkra masat ya na hpe ra sharawng ga ai. 
Mung masa hpyi shawn ai lawng lam 16: 
1) Jinghpaw Mung (Kachin State) ngu laksan ginra masat masa galaw ya ra na
2) Myen Amyu sha ni hte maren mara ahkaw ahkang lu ra na
3) Jinghpaw Mung kata na magam bungli hte mung masa lam yan ni hpe Mung (State) kata e shanu nga ai Shawa dawtsa ni sha jum hparan nna, shinggan na chyinglau ai lam n-nga na.
4) Shimlam, Maigan Kyithkai, mu na kyithkai, Post, gumhpraw, Mungdan Ahkang Aya hte Dak Hkama, Munghpawm Tara Rung, Customs; Federal magam bungli ni hta Kachin ni a gawng malai nga ra na. Munghpawm a dawdan lam ni hta Amyu bawsang ni a ningmu/madi shadaw lam nlu nna n-galaw na.
5) Mungdan Asuya hku nna Jinghpaw Mung atsawm sha tinnang hkum tinnang lu tsap ai nhtoi du hkra ja gumhpraw garum ya ra na. Kachin State hku nna ja gumhpraw jum hparan lu ai atsam nga ai hte maren, Sam Federation zawn tinnang gumhpraw tinnang jum hpajang lu ra na.
6) Munghpawm kaw na kam ai aten gale pru mat lu na ahkaw ahkang nga ra na.
7) Myen Munghpawm hta Kachin ni 500,000 jan nga ai majaw, Rapdaw hta nlaw htum Slg 10 masat jaw ra ai, ndai hpe District hte shawa ra lata poi hku nna lung wa ai Slg rai ra na.
8. ) Munghpawm hku nna dawdan ai lam hta Jinghpaw Mung hte seng ang ai rai wa yang, State a Rapdaw Slg 2/3 a madi shadaw ai lam lu ra ai.
9) Munghpawm a gawda tara gaw Amerikan Munghpawm a gaw da tara hpe bung tim, Myen Munghpawm hte rudi bawsang amyu kasha ni a matu grau htuk manu ai hku gin shalat la na. Laksan State shagu gaw Federal Asuya a Magam Dap ni hte Cabinet ni hta State ni a gawng malai tai ya ai Kasa Slg sa ya lu na.
10) Kachin State hta Mungdaw kata hta jailing mai ai tara upadi gin shalat na matu Rapdaw hpaw da ya na.
11) Ra kadawn ai hte hkan nna Federal Asuya hte State Asuya a mahkri shawn lam hpe hpaji jaw ya ai Kongsi hpaw ninghtan nna, ndai Kongsi hpe Mungdaw Asuya hku nna ra sharawng ai hkrang hku nna hpaw shabawn na.
12) Kachin ni British Commonwealth kata kaw naw rawng na/n-rawng na hpe gaw Rapdaw dawdan ai hku nna hkan sa na.
13) Points which are in dispute with the Burmese over constitutional rules either when they are being shown up or when they have been drawn up to be settled by a tribunal consisting of one Burmese High Court Judge and another High Court Judge.
14) Mungdaw hta shanu nga ai ni a madi shadaw ai lam n-nga ai sha laksan Kachin Mung hte seng ai Gawda Tara ni hpe gram sharai n-mai na.
15) Lahta na ginlam ni hte seng nna Myen Amyu sha ni madi shadaw ai re yang, Kachin-Myen Agreement galaw da ra na. Ndai hkam dahka nga ai Agreement hpe British Asuya hku nna lahpra Salang tai ya ra na.
16) Lahta na ni hpe Myen ni hku nna nlu hkap la yang, snr. Ahkyak ai gabaw/ginlam ni hpe nlu hkap la yang gaw, Munghpawm (Federation) jawm shachyaw na lam hpe jahkring ya aten hta naw jahkring da ra na re. Ndai lapran hta Kachin ni gaw lam kaga langai bai tam jat n-htawm SCOUHP hpe bai bawngban mat wa na.
Sen htu da ai Slg ni:
1) Kumweng Gam, Manhkring
2) Zau Rip, Amu Madu, Kachin Central Executive Council
3) Duwa Zau Naw, Sadon
4) Karing Naw, Ningbaw, Kachin Dist. Kongsi
5) Hapala Gam, Kauhkawng
6) Duwa Zau Awng, N’Wanghkang
7) Duwa Gum Lan, Tagap
8.) Sumdu Gam, Putao
9) U Aung Ba, Hkamti Long
10) Maung Shwe Thaung, Hkamti Long
11) U Hla, Hkamti Long
12) U Hla, Hkamti Long
13) Sao Nwa Seik Ta, Hkamti Long
14) Zau Rai, N. Triangle
15) Ningrang Yaw, Sumprabum
16) Mwijang La, Sadon
17) Sr. Hkaw Sau, Lauhkawng
18) Taik Bawm, Lauhkawng
19) Dingra Tang, Putao
20) Nwa Le, Mahkring
21) Padip La Tawng, Mohnyin
22) Hapuyam Gam, Jinghpaw Modern Civilization Development
23) Ginran Tang, Central Karen Ass. Youth League
24) Sara Gun Gam, Central Karen Ass. Youth League
25) Duwa Zau Lawn, Manmaw
26) Duwa Zau La, Manmaw
27) Mungga Tu, Manmaukawng, Manmaw
28) Zau Lawn, Mongkha, Manmaw
29) Gumja Naw, Maga
30) Hpaugan Tu, Hkamleng
31) Sub. F Maran Tu, Bumwa
32) Sub Gawlu Tu, Nmawk
33) Maran La, Sinlum Kaba
34) Maran Kamhpang, Tunghongyaung
35) Manam La, Chyahkan Dap
36) Maran Tu, Lana Hpara
37) M. Yaw Han, Kaihtik
38) Zau Tang, Lweje
39) Ugyi Thing Nan, Shwegu
40) L Ra Ring, Kachin Dist. Council
41) Lawang Li, Kachin Youth League
42) L Yawng Htang, Kachin Yought League
43) Maru Shawng, Kachin Youth League
44) Duwa Howa Hkun Hpung, North Hsenwi
45) Kareng Hkam, Kutkai
46) Lashi Gam, Kutkai
47) Sub Zau Bawk, Kutkai
48) Sr. La Hkang, Youths’ League
49) Sara Zau Ba, Mawswi
50) Mara Hkunlpa, Swegu

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Monday, December 18, 2017

1824 ning na First Burmese War

Myen Ningbaw ni kade daram manai makai re ngu hpe 1824 ning na First Burmese War nga kaw ka da ai.
Myen Innwa Hkawhkam a luksuk ni Ingalik Du ni hpe laika shagun ai hta Assam majan byin ai gaw shan hte a Mayam amyu re ai Assam ni hkalem ai majaw re nga nna shana ma ai. Dai majaw, majan sum ai raitim atsawm angwi apyaw sha htingnut shangun na matu Inglik du ni hpe tang sawn lai wa sai.
Matut nna ndai laika buk hta anhte Jinghpaw (Singpho) ni gara hku Ingalik ni hte gasat ai lam. Myen ni hte Jinghpaw Du ni gara madang hku nna ganawn mazum ai lam. Anhte gara hku mayam rim la ai lam ni ka masing da ai labau laika buk re.
Ya 2017 ning du hkra nshai nga ai
1. Bawsang ni hpe mayam hku mu ai ahkyang 
2. Mungdan kaba ni hte ganawn yang anhte amyu kaji ni she shuk shangut ai ni re ngu ningmu jaw ai akyang 
3. Manghkang byin yang Bum nga masha ni hpe regau saw ai / luksuk shajat ai ladat
4. Colony ginra ni hpe myit garan nna uphkang ai akyang, nhprang sut rai ni hpe hkum mara jai lang jahten sharun ai.
Lahta lam ni hpe hti hkaja lu na re.

Link
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Anglo-Burmese_War

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Thursday, December 14, 2017

Tales of a Gauri Lahpai Chieftain

 http://www.kachinlandnews.com/?p=28020

Our first homeland (Majoi Shingra) was said to have been on a vast, fertile plateau somewhere up north in Mongolia. The Majoi Shingra community thrived, and in no time evolved into a strong major race, the land becoming known as Singhpaw Dan Layang (Singhpaw Nation Plains). The paramount chief was Wahkyet Wa, the acknowledged progenitor of the 5 Kachin tribes.
After a time, wearying of the fierce, protracted wars waged to maintain control of the land, the descendants of Wahkyet Wa moved to the plains of Tibet where they established a second Majoi Shingra. Here again, they found themselves battling a strongly entrenched Wanghkye Lauwang (Chinese) tribe.
Jatawng Nawng
Although of chiefly descent, Jatawng Nawng had to overcome childhood adversity to become a warrior of renown. After their father was killed in a Wanghkye raid on their village, Jatawng Nawng’s mother took him and his younger brothers to seek refuge with her family, the Gitnems, but they were cruelly turned away. The mother had no choice but to abandon her sons in the forest, while she herself returned to their old village, to be caught and killed by the Wanghkye. The orphaned brothers fended for themselves as best they could, living off the land in the forest.
Years later, Gitnem Zau Tai, as Singhpaw supreme commander, suffered successive military defeats at the hands of the Wanghkye, and was obliged to ask his cousin Jatawng Nawng to take over, placing tens of thousands of warriors under his command.
Jatawng Nawng was a very principled general. Before going to battle, he would exhort his warriors thus:
Spoils of war you shall not take, nor the womenfolk touch!
We go to war, but for our homeland!
No rest shall we take nor return home until victory is ours!
There were times when the Singhpaw forces had the upper hand, and times when they had to concede to the Wanghkye. Of the seemingly endless wars, Jatawng Nawng lamented:
For three straight years, we battled the Wanghkye. Warriors, two astride a horse sitting back to back, letting fly arrows front and rear.
Constant wear of military headgear took a toll on our hair; our fingertips bruised and clotted with blood from pulling crossbows.
Yet our brave attempts have failed to breach Wanghkye ranks and torch their palace.
Eventually, drawn out battles with the Wanghkye led the 5 tribes to decide on a migration journey south. Thus far, the tribes had stayed together. But as they wound their way southward,
they began to go their separate ways, carving out homelands for themselves along the migration route to the east and west of the Mali and Nmai Rivers (tributaries to the Irrawaddy).
The Lahpai Clan
The Lahpai clan traces its lineage to Wa Hkyet Wa’s third son “Lahpai Wa” La Jawng. When the Wa Hkyet Wa summoned his 5 sons to come claim their inheritance from him, La Jawng did so, firmly gripping his father’s ceremonial spear as his birthright.
(Lahpai Wa La Jawng gaw,
Kawa a daru wunmawng ri,
Shingdawng ka-ang e gra rai sai!)
The Gauri Lahpai
One branch of the Lahpai clan is the Gauri, speaking a distinctive Kachin dialect. Adventurous and adroit at finding new lands to conquer and claim, the “far spreading” Gauri Lahpai chieftains held sway over vast swathes of territory – of “land spreading from the center of the skies”.
(Du mateng Lahpai ga gaw,
Lamu ka-ang, ga shingmang hkrai rai sai da.)
Jawa Li (Gauri Nawng)
Before the time of our ancestor Jawa Li, the Irrawaddy was but a small river and the town we know of today as Myitkyina was a shallow lake. The Shans (earlier settlers than the Kachin) would come to gather reeds from the lake. When the lake gradually dried up, the Shans called the land that emerged, “Tsaya Kung” (pleasant hill/mound). To this day, the Hkahku (upriver) Kachin know of the town only as “Sara Gung” (a Kachin derivative), and would not know if referred to as Myitkyina.
The land being formerly a lake, was very fertile, and the settlement that sprang up around it became Jawa Li’s domain. Soon the Shans from Mohnyin and Mogaung came up in droves to settle in the area, and Jawa Li assumed chieftainship of all 3 towns, levying tax from all three.
Earlier in life, Jawa Li had gone to a Shan Buddhist monastery at Hkat Cho (in Waingmaw township on the east bank of the Irrawaddy) to learn Shan and Burmese, and ended up spending 9 years there as a monk.
Jaufa (Jauhpa) Khun
Jaufa Khun (8 generations after Lahpai Wa La Jawng), was my 3rd great grandfather. He was educated at a Shan monastery school much like his great-grandfather Jawa Li before him. He knew Burmese and Chinese well, and was fluent in both spoken and written Shan. Besides his native Gauri dialect, he was at home with other Kachin dialects such as Atsi (Zaiwa), Maru (Lahvo) and Minji Mila. He had a keen interest in astrology and herbal medicine, and was reputed to have been a master at magic-related practices such as telling fortunes, casting spells and amulets.
Jaufa Khun had several wives and many offspring. One of his wives was a daughter of a Shan chief of Hkai Lung named Nang Ei, whom he had seduced and kept hidden in a cave from her family for a time. This cave in the Sinlum Hills is still known today as “Nang Ei’s cave”. We, the Pangmu branch of the Gauri Lahpai chieftain family, trace our direct lineage to Jaufa Khun through Nang Ei’s elder twin son Khun Gam.
After causing the death of one of his wives, Jaufa Khun sought refuge at a Shan monastery, spending several years in the monkhood. When his father passed away, the elders came looking for him at the monastery, to ask him to be their new Duwa (chief) and lead them in the fight against the Burmese Governor’s forces at Bhamo. (It was a time when Kachin tribes in the hills beyond Bhamo were in constant conflict with the Burmese governor over the matter of collecting tax. Chinese merchants were bringing in all kinds of goods to the new market town of Bhamo – Gatmau in Shan, and Manmaw in Kachin. The Mahtang Lahpai Gauri chiefs for instance, through whose territory the Chinese merchant muleteers passed, benefitted greatly from the lucrative Chinese trade. Remains of massive stone walls that once surround a Mahtang chieftain’s mansion built in the Chinese style, can still be seen to this day.)
Jaufa Khun was not eager to return to his former life. Given his shaven head and monk’s robes, the elders could not easily distinguish him from the other monks. So they brought in his pet dog to help identify him. Jaufa Khun was then persuaded to leave monkhood and assume his chieftain role.
Jaufa Khun, a great leader and warrior, was adept at employing unconventional guerilla tactics, besting a much stronger Burmese force on many occassions. He and his men would lure the Burmese up the mountains, cut off their escape route by setting fire to the surrounding forest, or unleash rock pallets on unsuspecting Burmese patrols coming uphill.
In one instance the Burmese were tricked into thinking they had scared off a camp of Kachin warriors about to feast on a slaughtered buffalo. The Burmese happily gorged themselves, taking out their swords to slice off the buffalo meat stewing in a large pot over the fire. They then spent the night at the camp. When Jaufa Khun and his men staged a surprise dawn raid, the Burmese found themselves unable to take out the swords from their scabbards. What had happened was that remnants of buffalo fat from the previous day’s feasting had congealed on their swords during the cold mountain night, causing the swords to be stuck to the scabbards.
The Burmese later came up to the hills in greater force, and torched the Kachin villages in revenge. After the Burmese left, Jaufa Khun and his warriors came out of hiding in the forest and returned to their burning villages. Jaufa Khun, seeing his house on fire, rushed in to retrieve his treasured astrology books and other sacred texts. He received severe burns on his back and died as a result of the injuries.
Shadip Zau Seng
My grandfather Shadip Zau Seng was a great grandson of Jaufa Khun. His father Zau Bawm was the Gauri Lahpai chief that founded Sinlum or Sinlum Kaba (Big Sinlum).
During Shadip Zau Seng’s time, British Col. Sladin, leading a mission to the Chinese frontier (1868), passed through Bhamo. He invited Kachin chiefs from the Bhamo hills to a big Hpu nau shakat (brotherhood/friendship feast). Two male buffaloes, with the longest of horns in the Dabang Hkyawng area, were slaughtered for the feast.
Afterwards, my grandfather told my father and mother of the dream he had the night of the feast. He said he saw in the dream, a bountiful catch of big white fish in a woven bamboo fish net (rit) that was set facing downstream, but when the rit faced upstream it hardly caught any fish. Interpreting the dream to mean that cultivating good relations with those coming up from downstream would be advantageous to the family, he told my parents to remind his descendants of it.
Shadip Zau Li
Shadip Zau Li was my father, and Zahkung Ja Nu of the Maru chieftain clan, my mother. I was born (1878) in Sinlum Kaba, after the infant deaths of my 3 elder brothers. Fearing I would be snatched away by nats (spirits) like my elder brothers, my animist parents gave me a secrect code name – Mayam/Yam Dun (slave child). When I was about 12, my father founded the new village of Pangmu, about a mile from Sinlum, and moved the family there.
About the year 1891/1892, (American Baptist missionaries) Rev. Roberts and Rev. Ola Hanson came up from Bhamo town to meet with my father and his younger brothers and co-chieftains Zau Li and Zau Tang, and ask for a piece of land. My father and uncles granted their request, also building a dwelling place for them on the plot. Each Summer, they would go fetch Rev. Hanson and his family from Bhamo, and escort them on their way back.
Soon afterward, the British came, and Sinlum Kaba, given its strategic position in the Sinlum Hills overlooking Yunan-China, became an important frontier town. It was an administration seat with a resident British frontier officer, and a fortified army post just outside town.
By Lahpai Nang Kai

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Du Kaba Malizup Zau Mai (1936-2017), A Reflection on His Life and Legacy

 http://www.kachinlandnews.com/?p=28012

Du Kaba Malizup Zau Mai passed away at a private hospital in Rangoon after a long illness on October 27. Du Kaba Zau Mai was of the Nhkum clan but apparently took Malizup (Mali River Confluence) as his family name to honor his Hka Hku heritage.
He was one of the founding members (popularly referred to as the 7 Stars) of the Kachin Independent Army (KIA). It was during his student days at Rangoon University that he and the other 6 Kachin university students got together to secretly plan a group that would fight for Kachin rights. They had been frustrated by the lack of development and self-determination rights for the Kachin in a system centrally controlled from Rangoon. Their deliberations led to the forming of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) in February 1961, convinced that true autonomy could only be achieved by the taking up of arms.
Du Kaba Zau Mai, as secretary of the 7 Stars Group, was assigned the responsibility of overseeing administrative affairs. As such, he served in the Burma Civil Service for a couple of years after graduation to gain administrative experience. It was only in 1963, that he abandoned his position as Sub Divisional Officer at Sinlum, to join the KIA.
He was also notable as a signatory to the historic 1994 agreement between the KIO and the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) military government that ushered in 17 years of ceasefire. Maran Brang Seng, as Chairman at that time, was to sign on behalf of the KIO, but on the verge of signing the treaty, he suffered a massive stroke that left him paralyzed. And so Du Kaba Zau Mai as Vice Chairman, took over and signed the treaty in his stead. When Chairman Brang Seng passed away in Aug 1994, Du Kaba Zau Mai was duly elected Chairman and Chief of Staff of the KIO/KIA. However in 2001, an internal coup stripped him of all his posts and placed him under house arrest. He was only allowed to go free in 2004, under the pretext of retiring for “health reasons”.
Reaction to his legacy as a leader has been mixed. Most of the negative reaction stems from his time at the helm of the KIO/KIA after the 1994 ceasefire treaty. His leadership style came under criticism as being politically and militarily inept. It is a fact that under his watch, rampant exploitation of Kachin natural resources by foreign and government “crony” companies took place, and a marked increase in military deployments in Kachin areas occurred. Some have even gone so far as to label him a “traitor” to Kachin ideals.
Then there are those who view his leadership role in a more positive light. They are among those who knew him and had worked closely with him. Dr. Manam Tu Ja, a former Vice President of the KIO, and current leader of the Kachin State Democracy Party (KSDP), asserts in an interview with the Burmese Program of the BBC soon after Du Kaba Zau Mai’s demise, that he was a skilled leader, selfless in his dedication to the Kachin cause. Also, there are those within the KIA who attest to his military prowess, saying he is the only general with more than 100 battlefield victories under his belt, adding that the most the other generals had achieved was around 50, never even near a hundred.
Daw Lahpai Seng Raw, founder of the Metta Development Foundation, credits Du Kaba Zau Mai with providing her the foresight and support needed to establish Metta, the non-governmental organization that has been at the forefront helping communities recover and rebuild from the effects of civil war and natural calamities, since its inception in 1997.
Not surprisingly, the most touching tribute to Du Kaba Zau Mai’s legacy, came from his only son Padang Zau Du. In his eulogy, he related his father’s response to the internal coup that put him under house arrest for about 3 years. He said that at the time of the coup, many of his loyal followers were ready to take up arms to defend him and resist the attempt to remove him from his position, but his father stopped them saying he was willing to be taken into custody, even give up his life if needed, to prevent his beloved KIO/KIA from being split into two. To his son, that is “true courage”, a measure of his strength of character, and a legacy to be treasured by him and his family.
Pang mu shayi

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Thursday, November 23, 2017

Thailand Mung dan kata hta dap jung laiwa sai, Wunpawng mungdan shanglawt hpyen dap Htam Ngawp Bum Na Labau Kadun

https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=300697657102457&id=100014866742068&pnref=story

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Htap ngawp kadawng na labau kadun


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Htam ngawp kadawng na labau

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Friday, November 10, 2017

Num Shawng Chye Wa Ai Lam


Jinghpo Wunpong Labau Sara Kaba 
#Sara_Htoi_Man (Duwa Manam Tawng) Sawk madun shalen da ai re.
Wunpong htung hking labau hpe chye da matsing sumhting da ging nga ai law.

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🇴NE 🇰achin ဆိုသည္မွာ


 
( ဘာသာျပန္ေဆာင္းပါး ) 
ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ား ျဖစ္ၾကေသာ ဂ်ိန္းေဖာ့၊ လခ်ိဒ္၊ ေလာ၀္ေ၀ၚ၊ လီဆူ၊ ရ၀မ္ႏွင့္ ဇိုင္၀ါး လူမ်ဳိးစုတို႔သည္ ေရွးပေ၀သဏီ အခ်ိန္ကာလမွစ၍ တူညီေသာ ေနာက္ခံသမိုင္းေၾကာင္းျဖင့္ ေနထိုင္ခဲ့ၾကသည့္ ညီရင္းအစ္ကို ေမာင္ရင္းႏွမမ်ား ျဖစ္ၾကသည္။ ယခုအခါ ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ား၏ ဘာသာစကား (Dialect) အမ်ိဳးအစားစံုလင္ကြဲျပားမႈကို အေၾကာင္းျပကာ တိုင္းတစ္ပါးသား လူမ်ဳိးျခားမ်ားမွ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးကို မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုအမည္မ်ားျဖင့္ အစိတ္စိတ္ အမႊာမႊာ ခြဲျခားရန္ ႀကိဳးစားေနၾကသည္။
အခ်ိန္ကာလၾကာျမင့္စြာ တစ္ေနရာမွ အျခားတစ္ေနရာသို႔ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းအေျခခ် ေနထိုင္ခဲ့ၾကသည့္ အတြက္ ေနရာေဒသအေပၚမူတည္၍ ေလယူေလသိမ္း၊ စကားလံုးႏွင့္ ေ၀ါဟာရ ၾကြယ္၀မႈတို႔တြင္ အထိုက္အေလ်ာက္ ကြဲျပားမႈမ်ားရွိေသာ္လည္း ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ားသည္ ယဥ္ေက်းမႈ ဓေလ့ထံုးတမ္း၊ ဆင္ယင္ထံုးဖြဲ႕မႈ ႏွင့္ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္း အေျခခ်ေနထိုင္ျခင္းတို႔၌ တူညီၾကသည့္အေလ်ာက္ မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စုတစ္ခုႏွင့္ တစ္ခု ခြဲျခားမရႏိုင္ဘဲ တစ္ခုတည္းေသာ လူမ်ဳိးအျဖစ္ စည္းလံုးညီညြတ္စြာ ေနထိုင္လ်က္ရွိပါသည္။
ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ားသည္ မိမိတို႔၏ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းေနထိုင္မႈသမိုင္းတြင္ အထင္ကရ ေဒသ မ်ားျဖစ္သည့္ မလိခူးမဂၽြယ္ (Mali Hku Majoi)၊ က်ဳိင္ခူးမဂၽြယ္ (Chyai Hku Majoi)၊ ခရန္ခူးမဂၽြယ္ (Hkrang Hku Majoi) စသည့္ ေဒသမ်ား၌ အေျခခ်ေနထိုင္ခဲ့ၾကၿပီး ေျမာက္အရပ္မွ ေတာင္ဘက္အရပ္သို႔ ဆက္လက္ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းေနထုိုင္ၾကသည္။ ဤသို႔ အေရွ႕၊ အေနာက္ႏွင့္ ေျမာက္ဘက္မွ ေတာင္ဘက္သို႔ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းေနထုိင္ခဲ့ၾကသည့္အတြက္ ဘာသာစကားအရ အရပ္ေလးမ်က္ႏွာကို ေခၚေ၀ၚရာ၌ပင္ အေရွ႕(Sinpraw)၊ အေနာက္(Sinna)၊ ေျမာက္(Dingdung)၊ ေတာင္(Dingda) ဟူ၍ အစဥ္လိုက္ သတ္မွတ္ ေခၚဆိုၾကပါသည္။
ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ား၏ ဘိုးေဘးမ်ားျဖစ္ၾကသည့္ ေရွးဦးကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိး(Proto Kachins)မ်ားသည္ မြန္ဂိုေဒသ(Mongolia)တြင္ စစ္တုိက္ကာ ေနထိုင္ခဲ့ၾကသူမ်ား ျဖစ္သည္။ ၎ေခတ္ကို Xiongnu (匈奴) ေခတ္ဟု ေခၚသည္။ တရုတ္ျပည္ရွိ မဟာတံတိုင္းႀကီးကို မေဆာက္လုပ္မီ ေခတ္ကာလ ျဖစ္သည္။ ထိုေခတ္ကာလတြင္ ေျပာဆိုခဲ့သည့္ စကားအခ်ဳိ႕ကို ရ၀မ္(ႏုန္)လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား ယေန႔တိုင္ေအာင္ သံုးစြဲေျပာဆို ေနၾကဆဲျဖစ္သည္။
ေရွးဦးကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားသည္ တိဘက္ကုန္းျမင့္ေဒသ (Tibetan Plateau)၊ ခ်င္းဟုိင္ (Qinghai -青海) ေရအိုင္ႏွင့္ ခ်န္း(ေခၚ)ယန္စီ (Yangtze - 长江) ျမစ္ဖ်ား ေဒသမ်ားတြင္ ေနထိုင္ခဲ့ၾကၿပီး ဆားခ်က္ကာ အသက္ေမြး ၀မ္းေက်ာင္းျပဳခဲ့ၾကသည္။ လီဆူ၊ တိဘက္ႏွင့္ ဂ်ိန္းေဖာ့လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားသည္ ဆားခ်က္လုပ္သည့္ လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားျဖစ္ကာ ခ်န္းျမစ္ဖ်ားေဒသမွ စတင္၍ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းေနထုိင္သြားၾကသည့္ လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ၊ ယူနန္ (Yunnan) ျပည္နယ္၊ တလီ (Dali) ၿမိဳ႕ရွိ ေရွးေဟာင္း သုေသသနျပတုိက္တြင္ ျပသထားသည္။ ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စုတုိ႔၏ သမိုင္းေနာက္ခံတူညီမႈကို ေဖာ္ညႊန္းသည့္ ထင္ရွားေသာ သက္ေသ အေထာက္အထား တစ္ခုပင္ျဖစ္သည္။
ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းေနထုိုင္သည့္ အခ်ိန္ကာလတစ္ေလွ်ာက္တြင္ မိမိတို႔၏ လူမ်ဳိးစုမ်ား ေရာက္ရွိေနထိုင္ရာ ေဒသရွိ အသံုးအေဆာင္၊ အလွအပအဆင္တန္ဆာမ်ားကို သံုးစြဲခဲ့ၾကရသည့္အတြက္ ဘာသာစကား၊ ႐ိုးရာ၀တ္စံုႏွင့္ ဆင္ရင္ထံုးဖြဲ႕မႈတြင္ ကြာျခားမႈ အနည္းအက်ဥ္းရွိခဲ့သည္။ ဂ်ိန္းေဖာ့႐ိုးရာ၀တ္စံုပင္လွ်င္ ဗန္းေမာ္၀တ္စံု၊ ခခူး၀တ္စံုစသျဖင့္ ေနရာေဒသကိုလိုက္၍ ကြဲျပားသည္။ သို႔ေသာ္ အထက္တြင္ ဆိုခဲ့သည့္အတိုင္း တူညီေသာ ရိုးရာဓေလ့ ထံုးတမ္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းအေျခခ်မႈသမိုင္းတို႔က ကခ်င္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုမ်ားကို ပိုင္းျခားခြဲထုတ္၍ မရေအာင္ အခိုင္အမာ သက္ေသခံလ်က္ ရွိပါသည္။
ထိမ္းျမားလက္ထပ္မႈကိစၥတြင္ ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ားအားလံုး၌ စနစ္တစ္ခုတည္းသာ ရွိသည္။ မည္သည့္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စု၊ မည္သည့္မိသားစုတြင္ ပါ၀င္သည္ျဖစ္ေစ၊ ညီအစ္ကိုမ်ိဳးႏြယ္ (Hpu Nau) - ေယာကၡမမ်ိဳးႏြယ္(Mayu) - သားမက္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္ (Dama) ဖိုခေနာက္ဆိုင္ ေတာ္စပ္ပံုစနစ္အရ ဤေခါင္းစဥ္ သံုးခုေအာက္တြင္သာ ရွိသည့္အတြက္ ကခ်င္အားလံုးမွာ ေဆြမ်ိဳးအရင္းအခ်ာမ်ားသာ ျဖစ္ၾကသည္။ ဤစနစ္သည္ မည္မွ်ေ၀းကြာေနသူမ်ားပင္ ျဖစ္ပါေစ၊ တစ္ေသြးတစ္သား တစ္စိတ္တစ္၀မ္းတည္း ျဖစ္ေအာင္ ရစ္ေႏွာင္ထားသည့္ တြဲလက္မ်ားပင္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။
ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ား၏ တူညီသည့္ အျခားအေၾကာင္းအရာတစ္ခုကို ညႊန္းဆိုရလွ်င္ ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စုမ်ားသည္ ဖခင္၏မ်ဳိးႏြယ္ကို လိုက္၍ အမည္မွည့္ဆိုေသာစနစ္ကို အသံုးျပဳသည္။ မိခင္၏ မ်ဳိးႏြယ္ျဖင့္ အမည္မွည့္ဆိုျခင္း မရွိဘဲ၊ ဖခင္၏ မ်ဳိးႏြယ္ကိုလိုက္၏ အမည္မွည့္ေခၚသည့္ စနစ္ (Patrilineal) ျဖစ္သည္။ ဖခင္သည္ လဖိုင္ (Lahpai) မ်ဳိးႏြယ္ျဖစ္ပါက သား၊ သမီးမ်ားသည္လည္း လဖုိင္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္ ျဖစ္ၾကၿပီး မိခင္ဘက္မွ မ်ိဳးႏြယ္ကို ေယာကၡမမ်ိဳးႏြယ္အျဖစ္ အလြန္ရိုေသတန္ဖိုးထားၾကသည္။ တစ္ဘက္မွလဲ သားမက္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္ကို မ်ားစြာအားကိုးအားထားျပဳကာ ပံုမွန္၀င္ထြက္သြားလာၾကသည္။ ဥပမာဆိုရလွ်င္ ဖခင္ျဖစ္သူ ေလာ၀္ေ၀ၚျဖစ္ပါက သားသမီးမ်ားသည္လည္း ဖခင္၏ မ်ဳိးႏြယ္အမည္ ဆက္ခံကာ ေလာ၀္ေ၀ၚလူမ်ဳိးပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ မိမိတို႔ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးတို႔၏ ယဥ္ေက်းမႈ ဓေလ့ထံုးစံကို စိုးစဥ္းမွ် သိရွိနားလည္ျခင္းမရွိပဲ ဂ်ိန္းေဖာ့လူမ်ဳိးႀကီး၀ါဒဟုဆိုကာ မရွက္မရွိ ၀ါဒျဖန္႔ေနၾကသည့္ တိုင္းတစ္ပါးသား လူမ်ဳိးျခားတို႔၏ ကလိန္ေစ့ျငမ္းဆင္ လုပ္ဇာတ္မ်ားကို နားမေယာင္ဖို႔ လိုသည္။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွ တိုင္းရင္းသား လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားအနက္ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိး၌သာ ဤကဲ့သို႔ေသာ မ်ဳိးႏြယ္အမည္ မွည့္ေခၚသည့္စနစ္(Family Name System) ရွိျခင္းမွာလည္း ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးတို႔၏ ထင္ရွားသည့္ ၀ိေသသလကၡဏာပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ကမၻာေပၚရွိ တရုတ္၊ ကိုးရီးယားစသည့္ လူမ်ဳိးအခ်ဳိ႕တြင္လည္း မ်ဳိးႏြယ္အမည္ မွည့္ေခၚၾကသည္။
ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား၏ အထင္ရွားဆံုးႏွင့္ အေရးႀကီးဆံုး ယဥ္ေက်းမႈ အမွတ္လကၡဏာမွာ မေနာတိုင္ (Manau Shadung) ႏွင့္ မေနာအက (Manau) ပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ကခ်င္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စု ၆ ခုလံုး မေနာအက ကၾကသည္။ ကမၻာေပၚတြင္ ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳး (မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု ၆ စု) မွလႊဲ၍ မည္သည့္လူမ်ဳိးမွ် မေနာအကကို မကေခ်။
မေနာအကႏွင့္ သက္ဆုိင္သည့္ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား၏ ဒ႑ာရီပံုျပင္တြင္ ငွက္မ်ဳိးေပါင္းစံုတို႔မွ မေနာအကကို စုေပါင္းကာ ကျခင္းလည္း ပါ၀င္သည္။ ဂ်ပန္၊ ကိုးရီးယားလူမ်ဳိးတို႔၏ ဒ႑ာရီပံုျပင္မ်ားတြင္လည္း ငွက္မ်ား ကခုန္သည့္ အေၾကာင္းအရာမ်ား ပါ၀င္သကဲ့သို႔ အာရွတုိက္မွ တိုင္းျပည္အခ်ဳိ႕တြင္ ငွက္မ်ား ကခုန္ေပ်ာ္ျမဴးသည့္ အေၾကာင္းအရာႏွင့္ ဆက္စပ္ေနသည့္ ပံုျပင္မူကြဲ အမ်ဳိးမ်ဳိးရွိေသာ္လည္း မေနာအကယဥ္ေက်းမႈကို လက္ေတြ႕က်င့္သံုးကာ ကသည့္ လူမ်ဳိးမွာ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးသာ ျဖစ္သည့္အတြက္ ဤပံုျပင္အမ်ဳိးမ်ဳိး၏ မူရင္းဇစ္ျမစ္မွာ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးတို႔၏ မေနာအက ပံုျပင္ပင္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း သက္ေသသာဓက ထင္ရွားလ်က္ ရွိေပသည္။ ငွက္မ်ား ကခုန္ေနသည့္ ပံုသ႑ာန္ ေၾကးရုပ္တုကို တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ၊ စီခၽြမ္ (Sichuan -四川) ျပည္နယ္ရွိ Sanxingdui (三星堆) ေရွးေဟာင္းယဥ္ေက်းမႈနယ္ေျမတြင္ တူးေဖာ္ရရွိခဲ့သည္။ မေနာအက ပံုျပင္၏ အခိုင္မာဆံုးေသာ သက္ေသတစ္ခုပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။
မေနာတိုင္တြင္ အသံုးျပဳသည့္ အမွတ္အသားမ်ား၊ လကၡဏာသေကၤတမ်ား၊ ပံုသ႑ာန္ (Pattern) မ်ားမွာ တ႐ုတ္ျပည္ရွိ မဟာတံတိုင္းႀကီး မေဆာက္လုပ္မီ အခ်ိန္ကာလမွ စတင္အသံုးျပဳခဲ့သည့္ လကၡဏာ ပံုသ႑ာန္မ်ား ျဖစ္သည္။ ယေန႔ကာလတြင္ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား သံုးစြဲ၀တ္ဆင္ေနသည့္ ၀တ္စားဆင္ယင္ထံုးဖြဲ႕မႈသည္လည္း ဘီစီ ၁၉၀၀ ႏွစ္ကာလမ်ားမွ ဆင္ယင္ထံုးဖြဲ႕မႈ ပံုစံမ်ားျဖစ္သည္။ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား၏ ေခတ္အဆက္ဆက္ ၀တ္စားဆင္ယင္ထံုးဖြဲ႕မႈမ်ားကို တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ၊ စီခၽြမ္ (Sichuan - 四川) ျပည္နယ္ရွိ ေရွးေဟာင္းသုေတသန ျပတိုက္တြင္ ျပသထားသည္။
ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား ကိုင္ေဆာင္အသံုးျပဳေလ့ရွိေသာ လက္နက္တစ္မ်ဳိးျဖစ္သည့္ ေလး (Bow) ကို Xiongnu (匈奴) ေခတ္မွ စတင္ကာ ျပဳလုပ္သံုးစြဲခဲ့ၾကေၾကာင္း အေထာက္အထားမ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရွိရသည္။ ေလးလက္နက္ျပဳလုပ္ရာတြင္ ပိုးစာပင္ (Morus) ၏ ပင္မေၾကာ႐ိုး သစ္သားကိုသာ သံုးစြဲျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ဤကဲ့သို႔ ပိုးစာပင္၏ ေၾကာ႐ိုးသစ္သားကို ထုတ္ယူကာ ေလးလက္နက္ျပဳလုပ္သည့္ နည္းလမ္းကို ယေန႔တိုင္ေအာင္ သံုးစြဲေနၾကဆဲ ျဖစ္သည္။ ေရွးကာလ ဘိုးဘြားတို႔၏ လက္ထက္မွစတင္ သံုးစြဲခဲ့သည့္ နည္းလမ္းကို ယေန႔ေခတ္ကာလတိုင္ေအာင္ ဆက္လက္သံုးစြဲေနၾကျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။
ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား၏ တူညီေသာ အျခား၀ိေသသလကၡဏာတစ္ရပ္မွာ လက္နက္ကိရိယာမ်ားကို သြန္းလုပ္ျခင္းပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ေက်ာက္စိုင္ေက်ာက္ခဲမ်ားမွ သံကို အရည္ေပ်ာ္ရယူကာ လက္နက္ကိရိယာမ်ားကို သြန္းလုပ္ၾကသည္။ မိမိတို႔ ကိုင္ေဆာင္အသံုးျပဳသည့္ လွံ၊ ဓား စသည္တို႔ကို ကိုယ္တိုင္ သြန္းလုပ္ၾကသည္။ အဖ်ားခၽြန္သည့္ ဓားလက္နက္ကို သံုးစြဲေလ့ သိပ္မရွိ။ အဖ်ားဘက္တြင္ ျပားကာ အနံက်ယ္သြားသည့္ ဓားမ်ားကို ပိုမို သြန္းလုပ္ သံုးစြဲၾကသည္။
႐ိုးရာနတ္ကိုးကြယ္မႈကို အေျခခံသည့္ ဓားေလွကားတက္သည့္ ဓေလ့ထံုးစံ(Knife-ladder Climbing)သည္လည္း ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ား၏ တူညီမႈတစ္ခုျဖစ္သည္။ နတ္၀င္စားသည္ႏွင့္ တၿပိဳင္နက္ အလြန္ထက္ေသာ ဓားမ်ားကို ေလွကားထစ္အျဖစ္ ျပဳလုပ္ထားေသာ ေလွကားေပၚသို႔ ေျပးတက္ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။ တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ၊ ကူမင္း(Kunming -昆明)ေဒသမွ လီဆူလူမ်ဳိးမ်ားသည္ ဓားေလွကားတက္သည့္ ဓေလ့ထံုးစံကို ယေန႔တုိုင္ေအာင္ က်င့္သံုးေနဆဲ ျဖစ္သည္။ ကခ်င္မ်ဳိးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ားအားလံုးသည္ ဓားေလွကားတက္ျခင္း ဓေလ့ကို ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ၾကကာ ဤအခ်က္သည္လည္း ျငင္းဆိုမရႏိုင္သည့္ တူညီခ်က္တစ္ခုပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။
ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးတို႔၏ ႐ုိးရာတူရိယာတစ္မ်ဳိးျဖစ္သည့္ ေက်ာက္စိမ္း Htu-Ren (Single-hole stone flute)ကိုလည္း တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံတြင္ တူးေဖာ္ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ့သည္။ ၎ Htu-ren တူရိယာမွာ လြန္ခဲ့သည့္ သက္တမ္းအားျဖင့္ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း (၇၀၀၀)ေက်ာ္ ၾကာျမင့္ေၾကာင္းလည္း စစ္ေဆးေတြ႕ရွိရသည္။ Htu-ren တီးမႈတ္သည့္ သမိုင္းသာဓကမ်ားကို အေျခခံကာ ဤ Htu-ren တူရိယာသည္ ေရွးေခတ္ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား၏ အသံုးအဆာင္တူရိယာျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေရွးေဟာင္းသုေတသနပညာရွင္ Duwa Manam Tawng (Li Xiangqian)မွ တင္ျပ အတည္ျပဳခ်က္ရယူႏိုင္ခဲ့သည္။ ရွာေဖြေတြ႕ရွိမႈႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္ၿပီး တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံပိုင္ ႐ုပ္ျမင္သံၾကား(CCTV-4)မွ Duwa Manam Tawng ကုိ ေမးျမန္း တင္ဆက္ခဲ့သည္။ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားသည္ လြန္ခဲ့သည့္ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း(၇၀၀၀)ေက်ာ္မွစ၍ ေက်ာက္စိမ္းကို ထြင္းေဖာက္ကာ ဂီတတူရိယာ ျပဳလုပ္သံုးစြဲႏိုင္ခဲ့ေၾကာင္းကို ဤရွာေဖြေတြ႕ရွိမႈက သက္ေသထူလ်က္ ရွိသည္။
ကခ်င္ရိုးရာအထိမ္းအမွတ္ လကၡဏာမ်ား ပါ၀င္သည့္ ေရွးေဟာင္းပစၥည္းမ်ားသည္ တူးေဖာ္ေတြ႔ရွိရသမွ် ေရွးေဟာင္းပစၥည္းမ်ားအနက္ သက္တမ္းအရင့္ဆံုးစာရင္းတြင္ ပါ၀င္သည္ျဖစ္ရာ ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳးတို႔အတြက္ ဂုဏ္ယူ၀ံ့ၾကြားစရာပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ တစ္ခ်ိန္က ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳးမ်ားကို အရိုင္းအစိုင္းမ်ား (Aborigines) အျဖစ္ အထင္အျမင္ေသးခဲ့သူမ်ားပင္လွ်င္ မိမိတို႔၏ အမွားကို သေဘာေပါက္ကာ ယခုအခါ ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳးမ်ားအပၚ အထင္မေသး၀ံ့ေတာ့ဘဲ တေလးတစား ဆက္ဆံလာၾကရသည္။ ဤသို႔ သက္တမ္းအရင့္ဆံုး ေရွးေဟာင္းပစၥည္းမ်ားကို တူးေဖာ္ေတြ႔ရွိသည့္အတြက္ တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံကလဲ မိမိႏိုင္ငံတြင္ တူးေဖာ္ေတြ႔ရွိသည့္ ေရွးေဟာင္းပစၥည္းအျဖစ္ တျမတ္တႏိုးတန္းဖိုးထားကာ ကမၻာအႏွံ႔မွ ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳးမ်ား ေတြ႔ဆံုၾကသည့္ ကမၻာလံုးဆိုင္ရာ မန္ရွီ(Mangshi) မေနာပြဲႀကီးတြင္ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳ၊ မွတ္တမ္းတင္ခဲ့သည္။ ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳး အားလံုးအတြက္ အလြန္ဂုဏ္ယူစရာ ကိစၥရပ္ႀကီးပင္ ျဖစ္ေပသည္။
(‘ကခ်င္ေတြကို စာသင္မယ့္အစား ေခြးကို စာသင္ေပးတာကမွ ပိုတတ္အံုးမယ္’ဟု ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားအား လာေရာက္သာသနာျပဳသည့္ ခရစ္ယာန္သာသနာျပဳဆရာမ်ားအား ဗမာဘုရင္ မင္းတုန္းမင္းမွ ေျပာဆိုကာ ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးကို ေစာ္ကားခဲ့ဖူးသည္။)
ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳးတို႔သည္ စစ္ေရးစစ္ရာတြင္ တစ္ဘက္ကမ္းခတ္ ကၽြမ္းက်င္သူမ်ား ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္းကုိလဲ သမိုင္းမွတ္တမ္းမ်ားက သက္ေသခံလ်က္ရွိသည္။ ကခ်င္ေဒသသို႔ က်ဴးေက်ာ္၀င္ေရာက္ လာေသာ အဂၤလိပ္တပ္မ်ားကို ေရွးဦးစြာခုခံတိုက္ခိုက္ခဲ့သူမွာ လီဆူမ်ိဳးႏြယ္စု၀င္ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးေခါင္းေဆာင္ Leme Ta Hpa ဆိုသူျဖစ္သည္။ ခ်ီေဆြ၊ ေဆာ္ေလာ္ေဒသမွ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးေခါင္းေဆာင္မွာ Langlaw Myaw Hkawng Dai ဆိုသူျဖစ္ၿပီး အဂၤလိပ္တပ္မ်ားကို အႀကိမ္ႀကိမ္တြန္းလွန္တုိက္ထုတ္ႏိုင္ခဲ့အတြက္ ေနာက္ဆံုးတြင္ အဂၤလိပ္တပ္မွ စစ္ေျပၿငိမ္းေရးအတြက္ ပန္ၾကားျခင္းခံခဲ့ရသူျဖစ္သည္။ ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳး ေတာ္လွန္ေရးေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား၏ ျပည္ပအကူအညီမယူဘဲ ကိုယ့္အားကိုယ္ကိုးၿပီး နယ္ခ်ဲ႕ဆန္႔က်င္ခဲ့ ပံုမ်ားမွာ ေအာက္ျပည္ ေအာက္သားတို႔အတြက္ စံနမူနာယူစရာ ေကာင္းလွသည္။
ဤကဲ့သို႔ ကခ်င္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား၏ လက္ရုံးရည္၊ ႏွလံုးရည္ထက္ျမက္မႈေၾကာင့္ ကခ်င္ျပည္သူ လူထုမွာ နယ္ခ်ဲ႕အဂၤလိပ္တို႔၏ ေခါင္းပံုျဖတ္အႏိုင္က်င့္မႈကို ေအာက္ျပည္မွ အျခားေဒသမ်ားကဲ့သို႔ မခံရဘဲ၊ ကိုယ္ပိုင္အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ျပဌာန္းခြင့္အျပည့္ျဖင့္ ေအးခ်မ္းစြာ ေနထိုင္ႏိုင္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ကခ်င္လူထုမွာ အဂၤလိပ္တို႔ ေရာက္ရွိအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေနမွန္းပင္ မသိရွိခဲ့ေပ။
ဖက္ဆစ္ဂ်ပန္တပ္မ်ားကို ဗမာ့လြတ္လပ္ေရးတပ္ (BIA) က ျပည္တြင္းသို႔ က်ဴးေက်ာ္ ေခၚ၀င္လာစဥ္ကလဲ ကခ်င္ (ရ၀မ္) လူငယ္မ်ားႏွင့္ ခခူးေဒသမွ ကခ်င္ (ဂ်ိန္းေဖာ့) လူငယ္မ်ားက Kachin Levies တပ္အျဖစ္ ခုခံတြန္းလွန္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ Northern Kachin Levies တပ္မ်ား၏ တိုက္ခိုက္မႈေၾကာင္း ပူတာအိုေဒသသို႔ မ၀င္ေရာက္ႏိုင္ဘဲ ျပန္ေျပးဆင္းလာေသာ ဂ်ပန္တပ္မ်ားကို ျမစ္အေရွ႕ျခမ္းမွ Kachin Rangers တပ္မ်ားက ထပ္မံ၍ ႏွိမ္ႏွင္းတိုက္ထုတ္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ကခ်င္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စု၀င္မ်ား၏ စည္းလံုးညီညြတ္မႈ ရလာဒ္ပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။
ကခ်င္တပ္မ်ား၏ တုိက္ခိုက္ႏွိမ္နင္းမႈေၾကာင့္ တပ္ပ်က္ကာ ကစဥ့္ကလ်ားဆုတ္ခြာလာေသာ ဂ်ပန္တပ္မ်ားကို ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းဦးေဆာင္ေသာ ဗမာ့လြတ္လပ္ေရးတပ္ (BIA) က အခက္အခဲမရွိ တုိက္ခိုက္လိုက္ႏိုင္သည့္အတြက္ ဗမာျပည္ႏွင့္ ဗမာ့လြတ္လပ္ေရးတပ္၏ ေန႔ထူးေန႔ျမတ္အျဖစ္ ယေန႔တိုင္ တသသ ျဖစ္ေနၾကဆဲျဖစ္သည္။
ကခ်င္ေျမေပၚမွ ဖက္ဆစ္ဂ်ပန္မ်ားကို တိုက္ထုတ္လိုက္သည့္အထိမ္းအမွတ္အျဖစ္ ေအာင္ပြဲခံ မေနာပြဲ (Padang Manau) ကို ၁၉၄၅ ခုႏွစ္၊ မတ္လ (၂၄-၂၆) တြင္ ဗန္းေမာ္ၿမိဳ႕အနီး စင္လံုကဘာရြာတြင္ Kachin Rangers တပ္က ဦးေဆာင္၍ ခ်ိမ့္ခ်ိမ့္သဲ က်င္းပခဲ့သည္။ ေနာက္တစ္ရက္ မတ္လ (၂၇) ရက္တြင္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းဦးေဆာင္ေသာ ဗမာ့လြတ္လပ္ေရးတပ္ကလဲ စစ္ႏိုင္ေနေသာ ဖက္ဆစ္ဆန္႔က်င္ေရး မဟာမိတ္တပ္ေပါင္းစု ဘက္သို႔ ေျပးကပ္ၿပီး အခ်ိန္မီဖက္ဆစ္ဆန္႔က်င္ေရး လုပ္ခဲ့ၾကသည္ျဖစ္ရာ ဂ်ပန္တပ္မ်ား လက္နက္ခ်သည္အထိ အခ်ိန္ ၂ လ၊ ၃ လခန္႔သာ ဖက္ဆစ္ေတာ္လွန္ေရးတြင္ ပါ၀င္ခဲ့သည္။
နယ္ခ်ဲ႕တပ္မ်ား က်ဴးေက်ာ္လာခ်ိန္တြင္ ကခ်င္ေဒသကို ကခ်င္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုမ်ား လက္တြဲၿပီး ခုခံကာကြယ္ခဲ့ၾကသည့္အတြက္ အိႏၵိယမွတဆင့္ ဥေရာပသို႔ ခ်ီတက္ရန္ ရည္မွန္းထားေသာ ဂ်ပန္တို႔၏ အႀကံအစည္ ပ်က္ျပားခဲ့ၿပီး ကခ်င္လူထု၏ ေသြးစည္းမႈႏွင့္ ကခ်င္တပ္မ်ား၏ စြမ္းရည္မွာ ကမၻာ့ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးတြင္ အေရးႀကီးေသာ အေၾကာင္းတစ္ခ်က္ျဖစ္လာခဲ့သည္။ ဖက္ဆစ္ဂ်ပန္မ်ားအား ကခ်င္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားသာ တားဆီးတြန္းလွန္ႏိုင္ခဲ့ျခင္းမရွိခဲ့ပါက ဖက္ဆစ္ႏွင့္ နာဇီတို႔ ေပါင္းမိသြားကာ ကမၻာ့သမိုင္းသည္လည္း တစ္မ်ဳိးတစ္ဖံု ေျပာင္းလဲသြားႏိုင္သည္။ ကခ်င္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုမ်ား၏ ေသြးစည္း ညီညြတ္မႈျဖင့္ ကမၻာ့သမိုင္းကို ေျပာင္းလဲႏိုင္ခဲ့သည္ဟု ဆိုရေပမည္။ 
ဤသို႔ ကခ်င္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စုတို႔သည္ ဘာသာစကားႏွင့္ ေနထိုင္ရာေဒသကြဲျပားၾကေသာ္လည္း တစ္ခုတည္းေသာ ရာဇ၀င္၊ တစ္ခုတည္းေသာ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းေနထုိင္မႈသမိုင္း၊ တစ္ခုတည္းေသာ ယဥ္ေက်းမႈ ထံုးတမ္းအစဥ္အလာတို႔ျဖင့္ ေသြးေရာယွက္တင္ေနထိုင္ကာ ထူးျခားေသာ၀ိေသသမ်ားျဖင့္ ျပည့္စံုသည့္ လူမ်ိဳးတစ္ရပ္အျဖစ္ ခိုင္ခိုင္မာမာ ရပ္တည္လ်က္ရွိပါသည္။ အစစအရာရာ ကြဲျပားေသာ လူမ်ိဳးမ်ားကို လက္နက္ျပၿပီး လူမ်ိဳးတစ္ခုတည္းျဖစ္သေယာင္ ဟန္ေဆာင္ပန္ေဆာင္ အရွက္မရွိ စုစည္းထားျခင္း မ်ိဳးမဟုတ္ဘဲ အမွန္တရားႏွင့္ ညီအစ္ကိုရင္းတို႔၏ ခ်စ္ျခင္းေမတၱာအေပၚ အေျခခံသည့္ လူမ်ိဳးတစ္ရပ္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။
တိုင္းတစ္ပါးသား လူမ်ိဳးျခားတို႔၏ ယုတ္မာေကာက္က်စ္ ေသြးခြဲသပ္လွ်ိဳမႈကို လိမၼာပါးနပ္စြာ ေရွာင္တိမ္းၿပီး ကခ်င္မ်ိဳးႏြယ္စု၀င္အခ်င္းခ်င္း၏ ေသြးစည္ခ်စ္ၾကည္မႈကို တည္ေဆာက္လ်က္ မိမိကိုယ္ကုိ ကခ်င္ ဟု ဂုဏ္ယူ၀့ံၾကြားစြာ ဖြင့္ဆိုမြက္ဟရမည့္အခ်ိန္ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း တင္ျပလိုက္ရပါသည္။
Punggan
[One Kachin Magazine 2013 တြင္ေဖာ္ျပၿပီးျဖစ္ေသာ Chyu Rum Ai Wunpawng Myu Sha Ni (Shing N Rai) One Kachin ေဆာင္းပါးကို ဘာသာျပန္ဆို ျဖည့္စြက္ေရးသားထားျခင္း ျဖစ္ပါသည္။]
Credit to original writer) 
Ningtsa Pyen Langji
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